United Power System of Russia (UPS of Russia) covers the territory of 81 federal subjects and is formed of 71 regional power systems comprising 7 interconnected power systems (IPS): East, Siberia, Ural, Middle Volga, South, Center and North-West.
All power systems are interconnected by high voltage tie-lines 110-1150 kV and operate synchronously. Operation and control of 7 interconnections and 71 regional subsystems are performed by SO UPS branches – interconnected and regional dispatch control offices. Main features:
UPS of Russia is exceptional in quantitative and qualitative characteristics. The territory spans 9 time zones. Generation fleet includes over 800 power stations with total installed capacity 243 GW (as of 1 January 2019). Due to climate conditions and natural fuel resources, Thermal power plants on fossil fuels provide about 68% of the installed capacity.
Key element of the backbone grid is a lot of extensive transmission lines with occasionally limited capacity. UPS of Russia consists of over 10 700 transmission lines and more than 12 000 power substations of 110-750 kV. Considerable part of electrical facilities operates under severe climate conditions of the North and Far North.
Stable operation of power systems with weak interconnections in some regions is provided by wide implementation of Emergency Control Automatics, managed and controlled by SO UPS.
UPS of Russia operates synchronously with power systems of Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Mongolia, Ukraine and Estonia. Power systems of Uzbekistan and Kirghizia (Central Asia) are synchronized with UPS of Russia via Kazakhstan. Power system of Finland is interconnected asynchronously with UPS of Russia via HVDC-link Vyborgskiy.